On his 89th birth anniversary, here are some lesser-known contributions of 'Missile Man' APJ Abdul Kalam

Dr APJ Kalam, born on October 15, 1931, in Tamil Nadu's Rameswaram. 'Missile Man of India' served as the 11th President of India between 2002 and 2007. Kalam has inspired millions through his philosophy of 'simple living and high thinking.' He played a crucial role in the 1998 Pokhran-II nuclear tests and was also associated with India's space program and missile development program.

As an aerospace scientist, Kalam worked with India's two major space research organisations - Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).

After serving as the President he did what he loved the most - teaching. He was honoured with several prestigious awards. He was also honoured with India's highest civilian honour "Bharat Ratna" in 1997.

Kalam was popular among children and the country's youth. He inspired to think big in life. He penned nearly 25 books like India 2020, Vision for the new millennium, Mission of India: A Vision of Indian Youth

Five years after his demise, his contributions are still remembered as some of the best scientific and technological developments in the country.

While, his work in the development and operationalisation of Indigenous guided missiles - AGNI and PRITHVI - earned him the title of the 'Missile Man of India,' there are many more ways in which Kalam has helped India in the division of science and technology.

For his work in the stream of science and politics, the 11th President was also awarded India's highest civilian honour or the Bharat Ratna.

Kalam breathed his last on July 27, 2015, while delivering a lecture at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong when he collapsed and died from a cardiac arrest.

On the 89th birth anniversary of Dr APJ Abdul Kalam, here are five of his scientific contributions to the country.

1. Directed the project to develop India's first Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV)

Directed the project to develop India1/5 Back in 1980s, when India had hardly dreamt of having its indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV), Dr Kalam's over 10-year-long hard work as the project director for the development of the indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle at ISRO led to the ground-breaking scientific development.

It was in July 1980, that India's SLV-III successfully deployed the Rohini satellite in the near-Earth orbit leading to the country becoming a member of the exclusive Space Club.

2. Directed projects for the development of ballistic missiles

Directed projects for the development of ballistic missiles2/5 Kalam also headed the projects Devil and Valiant which had the aim of developing ballistic missiles using the technology behind the successful SLV program. Under mission Kalam with other projects, members developed many missiles including AGNI which is an intermediate-range ballistic missile and PRITHVI which is a surface-to-surface missile.

3. Headed multiple nuclear tests at Pokhran

Headed multiple nuclear tests at Pokhran3/5 Serving as the Chief Scientific Adviser to the then Prime Minister, Kalam played a major role in heading the Pokhran-II nuclear testing leading to him being known as the best nuclear scientist of the country at that time. The nuclear testing under the supervision of Kalam during the period of July 1992 to December 1999 made India a nuclear-armed state.

4. Worked in making healthcare accessible to all

Worked in making healthcare accessible to all4/5
Working jointly with cardiologist Soma Raju, the late President developed a cost-effective coronary stent 'Kalam-Raju Stent' which helped in making healthcare accessible to all.

5. Developed the rugged 'Kalam-Raju tablet'

Developed the rugged 5/5
The duo of Kalam and Soma Raju later in 2012 designed a rugged tablet computer for better health care administration in the rural pockets of the country. They termed it the 'Kalam-Raju tablet.'

Source : DNA India